Nov. 5, 2013 Affluent girls residing in two-parent homes are much less likely to become sexually assaulted than other feminine youth, according to a new study from your University of Iowa. The research revealed that when family income reaches four hundred percent of the poverty threshold, or even around $92, 000 for a four-person household, the risk of sexual assault diminishes by more than half.
The study conducted by UI School of Social Work professor Amy Butler examined sexual assault in more than 1, 000 girls long-standing 17 and younger, across most income levels. It relied on data obtained from the ongoing Section Study of Income Dynamics — a national survey of family members begun in 1968 and focused by University of Michigan teachers.
Unlike other analyses that examine data gathered following a sexual assault has occurred, Butler’ s study looked at risk factors related to behavior, family history, and parent income that were measured prior to an assault, giving the work potentially predictive value.
“ It’ s important to have clear after and before measures, ” Butler says.
Published in the International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect , the study demonstrated that the risk of sexual assault for females between the ages of four plus 17 declined from 12. 3 to 5. 6 percent once income arrived at 400 percent or more of the low income threshold.
Her evaluation also confirmed previous research that showed girls whose mothers had at least a high-school education plus whose biological parents were each present from birth to age group one had a lower risk of intimate assault.
Nationwide, 1 in 10 girls is physically assaulted, according to Butler’ s research. This compares to one in five girls who are victims of intimate abuse — a term frequently encompassing a broader range of improper behavior that can include voyeurism or even verbal pressure for sex — as reported by the advocacy organization, the National Center for Sufferers of Crime. While reasons behind a decreased risk of sexual assault for youthful females in economically comfortable, two-parent households are not yet known, Retainer notes there may be several possible details.
For example , factors that may enable some parents to achieve higher socioeconomic status — e. g. having children later in life — might be tied to personal characteristics like improved maturity levels that are then passed down to their children. Education appears to play a role as well.
“ It is possible that educated, two-parent families can better afford to raise their children within safe neighborhoods, send them to secure schools, and ensure that their actions are well supervised, thereby decreasing their risk for sexual assault, ” Butler writes.
“ Alternatively, the personal characteristics that may enable some parents to achieve higher socio-economic status may be transmitted to the child through heredity and parental modeling, thereby reducing her risk. ”
Butler’ s study helps establish that many risk factors identified in retrospective studies (those conducted after the fact) are precise predictors of whether a girl will certainly experience childhood sexual assault.
Her analysis found that girls with extremely low math and reading scores, and those referred to special education programs were much more likely than their peers to experience an assault. It also confirmed that young ladies who — according to their caregivers — were shy, withdrawn, had impulsive tendencies or expressed emotions of worthlessness were more vulnerable to sexual assault.
The research further outlined that many mental health disorders found in victims and survivors of assault appear to be a result of their experience with rape. Butler is performing additional analysis to research this link and others. She is hopeful that the girl study will open the doors to get more young women to discuss sexual assault, plus encourage them to find support and help.
And though her study focuses on risk factors in young ladies, she is quick to note that sufferers are never to blame. “ Perpetrators develop their skills to entrap young ladies. No one enters a situation expecting to end up being sexually assaulted, ” says Retainer.